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Tone (linguistics) language

Tone (etymology) From Wikipedia, the free reference book (Diverted from Tonal dialect) Hop to navigationJump to look Not to be mistaken for inflexion (phonetics). The four principle tones of Standard Mandarin, articulated with the syllable mama. MENU0:00 A tone is utilization of contributing dialect to recognize lexical or syntactic importance – that is, to recognize or to arch words.[1] All verbal dialects utilize pitch to express passionate and other paralinguistic data and to pass on accentuation, differentiation, and other such highlights in what is called sound, yet not all dialects utilize tones to recognize words or their affectations, comparably to consonants and vowels. Dialects that do have this element are called tonal dialects; the unmistakable tone examples of such a dialect are here and there called tonemes,[2] by similarity with the phoneme. Tonal dialects are normal in East and Southeast Asia, the Pacific, Africa, and the Americas; upwards of seventy per cent [citation needed] of world dialects might be tonal.[1] In numerous tonal African dialects, for example, most Bantu dialects, tones are recognized by their pitch level with respect to one another, known as an enrol tone system.[3] In multi-syllable words, a solitary tone might be conveyed by the whole world as opposed to an alternate tone on every syllable. Frequently, linguistic data, for example, past versus present, "I" versus "you", or positive versus negative, is passed on exclusively by tone. In the most generally talked tonal dialect, Mandarin Chinese, tones are recognized by their particular shape, known as the form, with each tone having an alternate inward example of rising and falling pitch.[4] Many words, particularly monosyllabic ones, are separated exclusively by tone. In a multisyllabic word, every syllable regularly conveys its very own tone. Dissimilar to in Bantu frameworks, tone assumes little job in the sentence structure of current standard Chinese, however, the tones slip from highlights in Old Chinese that had morphological criticalness, (for example, changing a verb to a thing or the other way around). Form frameworks are run of the mill of dialects of the Mainland Southeast Asia semantic region, including Kra– Dai, Vietic and Sino-Tibetan dialects. The Afroasiatic, Khoisan, Niger-Congo and Nilo-Saharan dialects talked in Africa are commanded by enlisting systems.[5] Some dialects consolidate the two frameworks, for example, Cantonese, which produces three assortments of form tone at three diverse pitch levels,[6] and the Omotic (Afroasiatic) dialect Bench, which utilizes five level tones and a couple of rising tones crosswise over levels.[7] Numerous dialects utilize tone in a more constrained manner. In Japanese, less than half of the words have a drop in pitch; words differentiate as indicated by which syllable this drop pursues. Such negligible frameworks are once in a while called pitch compliment since they are reminiscent of stress emphasize dialects, which commonly permit one vital focused on syllable per word. In any case, there is banter over the meaning of pitch emphasize and whether an intelligent definition is even possible.[8] Substance 1 List of tonal dialects 1.1 Africa 1.2 Asia 1.3 Europe 1.4 Australasia 1.5 America 1.6 Summary 2 Mechanics 3 Tone and pitch 4 Register tones and form tones 4.1 Register phonation 5 Tone terracing and tone sandhi 5.1 Tone terracing 5.2 Tone sandhi 6 Word tones and syllable tones 7 Tonal extremity 8 Uses of tone 9 Phonetic documentation 9.1 Africa 9.2 Asia 9.3 North America 9.4 South America 9.5 Europe 10 Orthographies 11 Number of tones 12 Origin 13 See moreover 14 References 15 Bibliography 16 External connections Rundown of tonal dialects Africa Most dialects of Sub-Saharan Africa are individuals from the Niger-Congo family, or, in other words; quite with the exception of Swahili (in the Southeast), most dialects talked in the Senegambia (among them Wolof, Serer and Cangin dialects), Koyra Chiini and Fulani. The Afroasiatic dialects incorporate both tonal (Chadic, Omotic) and nontonal (Semitic, Berber, Egyptian, and most Cushitic) branches.[9] All three Khoisan dialect families: Khloe, Kx'a, and Tutu are tonal. Asia Various tonal dialects are generally talked in China and Mainland Southeast Asia. Sino-Tibetan and Tai-Kadai dialects are for the most part tonal, including Thai, Lao, every one of the assortments of Chinese (however a few, for example, Shanghainese, are just barely tonal[citation needed]) and Burmese with a couple of special cases, for example, Amdo Tibetan. The Hmong– Mien dialects are probably the most tonal dialects on the planet, with upwards of twelve phonemically particular tones. Austroasiatic, (for example, Khmer and Mon) and Austronesian, (for example, Malay) dialects are for the most part nontonal with the uncommon special case of Austroasiatic dialects like Vietnamese, and Austronesian dialects like Cèmuhî and Utsul.[10] Tones in Vietnamese[11] and Utsul may result from substantial Chinese effect on the two dialects. There were tones in Middle Korean.[12][13][14] Other dialects spoke to in the area, for example, Mongolian, Uyghur, and Japanese have a place with dialect families that don't contain any tonality as characterized here. In South Asia, numerous Indo-Aryan dialects have tonality, including numerous dialects from the Northwest zone, similar to Punjabi, Dogri, and Lahnda[15][16][17][18]and numerous Bengali-Assamese dialects, for example, Sylheti, Rohingya, Chittagonian, and Chakma. Europe In Europe, Swedish, Norwegian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovene, Lithuanian, Latvian and Limburgish have tonal attributes. Australasia In spite of the fact that the Austronesian dialect family has some tonal individuals, for example, New Caledonia's Cèmuhî dialect, no tonal dialects have been found in Australia. The tone is likewise present in numerous Papuan dialects. America Countless, South and Central American dialects are tonal, including a significant number of the Athabaskan dialects of Alaska and the American Southwest (counting Navajo),[19] and the Oto-Manguean dialects of Mexico. Among the Mayan dialects, which are for the most part non-tonal, Yucatec (with the biggest number of speakers), Uspantek, and one vernacular of Tzotzil have created tone frameworks. Be that as it may, in spite of the fact that tone frameworks have been recorded for some American dialects, minimal hypothetical work has been finished for the portrayal of their tone frameworks. In various cases, It
Tone (linguistics) language Tone (linguistics) language Reviewed by Hammad on October 31, 2018 Rating: 5

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